Research Articles & Reports

HT-RADAR is building a database of human trafficking related research and reports from 2015-2020, focusing on the U.S.  Requests for research on particular subtopics can be made by completing the “Have a Research Need?” form.  Would you like to add to this growing database?  Contact Us!

A List of Articles and Reports
Title Year of Publication Publication Researchers
‘It’s All in Their Brain’: Constructing the figure of the trafficking victim on the US-Mexico border
(PDF 365 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Gabriella Sanchez
‘Tied Visas’ and Inadequate Labour Protections: A formula for abuse and exploitation of migrant domestic workers in the United Kingdom
(PDF 508 KB)
2015 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Daphne Demetriou
“It’s a Marathon Not a Race”: Exiting the Commercial Sex Trade
(PDF 7 MB)
2015 National Criminal Justice Reference Service (U.S.)
  • April M. Rand
(E)Racing Childhood: Examining the Racialized Construction of Childhood and Innocence in the Treatment of Sexually Exploited Minors
(PDF 147 KB)
2015 UCLA Law Review
  • Priscilla A. Ocen
A California Multidisciplinary Juvenile Court: Serving Sexually Exploited and At-Risk Youth
(PDF 109 KB)
2016 Behavioral Sciences and the Law
  • Brandi D. Liles, Ph.D.
  • Dawn M. Blacker, Ph.D.
  • Jenny L. Landini, Ph.D.
  • Anthony J. Urquiza, LCSW
A Critical Race Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafficking in America
(PDF 571 KB)
2015 Yale Journal of Law & Feminism
  • Cheryl Nelson-Butler
A Four-Year Analysis of Labor Trafficking Cases in the United States
(PDF 2 MB)
2018 Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research Arizona State University
  • Dr. Dominique Roe-Sepowitz, MSW, Ph.D.
  • Kristen Bracy, MA, MSW
  • Bandak Lul, MA
A Four-year Analysis of Labor Trafficking Cases in the United States: Exploring Characteristics and Labor Trafficking Patterns 2019 Journal of Human Trafficking
  • Kristen Bracy
  • Bandak Lul
  • Dominique Roe-Sepowitz
A Pathway to Freedom: An Evaluation of Screening Tools for the Identification of Trafficking Victims 2016 Academic Psychiatry
  • Nadejda Bespalova
  • Juliet Morgan
  • John Coverdale
A Six-year Analysis of Sex Traffickers of Minors: Exploring Characteristics and Sex Trafficking Patterns
(PDF 2 MB)
2017 Arizona State University Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research
  • Dr. Dominique Roe-Sepowitz
  • Cmdr. James Gallagher
  • Kimberly Hogan
  • Tiana Ward
  • Nicole Denecour
  • Kristen Bracy
A supportive adult may be the difference in homeless youth not being trafficked 2018 Children and Youth Services Review
  • Makini Chisolm-Straker
  • Julia Einbond
  • Jeremy Sze
A Typology of Offenders Engaging in the Sex Trafficking of Juveniles (STJ): Implications for Risk Assessment
(PDF 456 KB)
2016 Aggression and Violent Behavior
  • Holly A. Hargreaves-Cormany
  • Terri D. Patterson
  • Yvonne E. Muirhead
  • The Federal Bureau of Investigation
After Rescue: Evaluation of Strategies to Stabilize and Integrate Adult Survivors of Human Trafficking to the United States
(PDF 4 MB)
2016 National Institute of Justice
  • Elzbieta Gozdziak, Ph.D.
  • B. Lindsay Lowell, Ph.D.
Alternative Forms of Justice for Human Trafficking Survivors
(PDF 362 KB)
2018 Urban Institute
  • Lilly Yu
  • Jeanette Hussemann
  • Hanna Love
  • Evelyn F. McCoy
  • Colleen Owens
Assessing Family Medicine Residency Programs’ Training on Human Trafficking: A National Survey of Program Directors 2020 Journal of Human Trafficking
  • Ranit Mishori
  • Katherine Stolarz
  • Anit Ravi
  • Valeriy R. Korostyshevskiy
  • Ronald Chambers
  • Peter Cronholm
Asylum, Immigration Restrictions and Exploitation: Hyper- precarity as a lens for understanding and tackling forced labour
(PDF 344 KB)
2015 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Hannah Lewis
  • Louise Waite
Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame
(PDF 337 KB)
2016 Journal of Interpersonal Violence
  • Katherine C. Cunningham
  • Lisa DeMarni Cromer
Barriers to Sexually Exploited Cambodian Women Integrating into Churches: Perspectives of Sexually Exploited Women and the Christian Community
(PDF 689 KB)
2020 Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
  • Tricia J. Hester
  • Sopheak Kong
  • Glenn M. Miles
Beyond Massage Parlors: Exposing the Korean Commercial Sex Market in the United States
(PDF 1 MB)
2017 Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
  • Youngbee Dale
  • Amy Levesque
Bibliography of Research-Based Literature on Human Trafficking: 2008-2014
(PDF 2 MB)
2015 Institute for the Study of Internal Migration
  • Elżbieta M. Goździak, PhD
  • Sarah Graveline
  • Whitney Skippings
  • Minna Song
Black Girls and the (Im)Possibilities of a Victim Trope: The Intersectional Failures of Legal and Advocacy Interventions in the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Minors in the United States
(PDF 100 KB)
2015 UCLA Law Review
  • Jasmine Phillips
Challenges to the rapid identification of children who have been trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation
(PDF 678 KB)
2016 Child Abuse & Neglect
  • Yvonne Rafferty
Characteristics of child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking victims presenting for medical care in the United States
(PDF 428 KB)
2015 Child Abuse & Neglect
  • Selina Varmaa
  • Scott Gillespie
  • Courtney McCracken
  • Jordan Greenbaum
Characteristics of survivors of juvenile sex trafficking: Implications for treatment and intervention initiatives
(PDF 918 KB)
2016 Aggression and Violent Behavior
  • Holly A. Hargreaves-Cormany
  • Terri D. Patterson
Characterization of contact offenders and child exploitation material trafficking on five peer-to-peer networks
(PDF 2 MB)
2016 Child Abuse & Neglect
  • George Bissias
  • Brian Levinea
  • Marc Liberatorea
  • Brian Lynna
  • Juston Moorea
  • Hanna Wallacha
  • Janis Wolakc
Child Sex Trafficking Survivors Roundtable
(PDF 7 MB)
2019 United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs AMBER Alert Training and Technical Assistance Program
  • Dominique Roe-Sepowitz, MSW, Ph.D.
Child Sex Trafficking: An Eight-year Exploratory Study in Las Vegas, Nevada
(PDF 4 MB)
2020 Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research Arizona State University
  • Dominique Roe-Sepowitz
  • Kristen Bracy
  • Elynne Greene
  • James Walters
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Emergence of Safe Harbor Legislation: Implications for Policy and Practice
(PDF 774 KB)
2015 Current Psychiatry Reports
  • Ryan T. Shields
  • Elizabeth J. Letourneau
Comparing Sex Buyers With Men Who Do Not Buy Sex: New Data on Prostitution and Trafficking
(PDF 404 KB)
2015 Journal of Interpersonal Violence
  • Melissa Farley
  • Jacqueline M. Golding
  • Emily Schuckman Matthews
  • Neil M. Malamuth
  • Laura Jarrett
Delivering Justice for Human Trafficking Survivors 2018 Urban Institute
  • Evelyn F. McCoy
  • Colleen Owens
  • Lilly Yu
  • Hanna Love
  • Jeanette Hussemann
Deploying Disclosure Laws to Eliminate Forced Labour: Supply chain transparency efforts of Brazil and the United States of America
(PDF 476 KB)
2015 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Ashley Feasley
Economic effects of COVID-19 and the exploitation of children 2020 World Vision International
  • Carolyn Kabore
  • Ellie Wong
  • Angeline Munzara
Editorial: Trafficking (in) Representations: Understanding the recurring appeal of victimhood and slavery in neoliberal times
(PDF 289 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Rutvica Andrijasevic
  • Nicola Mai
Estimating the Size and Structure of the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US Cities
(PDF 5 MB)
2014 Urban Institute
  • Cybele Kotonias
  • Debbie Mayer
  • Colleen Owens
  • Laura Pacifici
  • Lilly Yu
Evaluation of Services for Domestic Minor Victims of Human Trafficking
(PDF 2 MB)
2015 RTI International
  • Deborah Gibbs
  • Jennifer L. Hardison Walters
  • Alexandra Lutnick
  • Shari Miller
  • Marianne Kluckman
Expelling Slavery from the Nation: Representations of labour exploitation in Australia’s supply chain
(PDF 330 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Anna Szörényi
Experiences of Racism and Racial Tensions Among African American Women Impacted by Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Practice: A Qualitative Study
(PDF 158 KB)
2019 Violence Against Women
  • Lara B. Gerassi
Exploring the Context of Trafficking and Adolescent Sex Industry Involvement in Tijuana, Mexico: Consequences for HIV Risk and Prevention
(PDF 377 KB)
2015 Violence Against Women
  • Shira M. Goldenberg
  • Jay G. Silverman
  • David Engstrom
  • Ietza Bojorquez-Chapela
  • Paula Usita
  • María Luisa Rolón
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
Firearms and Ammunition Industry Economic Impact Report 2014
(PDF 2 MB)
2015 National Shooting Sports Foundation
  • National Shooting Sports Foundation
From Rescue to Representation: A Human Rights Approach to the Contemporary Anti-Slavery Movement
(PDF 306 KB)
2015 Journal of Human Rights
  • Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick
From Victimization to Restoration: Multi-Disciplinary Collaborative Approaches to Care and Support Victims and Survivors of Human Trafficking 2020 Journal of Human Trafficking
  • Arduizur Carli Richie-Zavaleta
  • Sarah Baranik
  • Stephanie Mersch
  • Janna Ataiants
  • Shea M. Rhodes
Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen
(PDF 606 KB)
2016 Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
  • Makini Chisolm-Straker, MD, MPH
  • Susie Baldwin, MD, MPH
  • Bertille Gaïgbé-Togbé, MD
  • Nneka Ndukwe, MD
  • Pauline N. Johnson
  • Lynne D. Richardson, MD
How to Stage a Raid: Police, media and the master narrative of trafficking
(PDF 292 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Annie Hill
Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England
(PDF 601 KB)
2016 AJPH Research
  • Siân Oram, PhD
  • Melanie Abas, MD
  • Debra Bick, PhD
  • Adrian Boyle, MD
  • Rebecca French, PhD
  • Sharon Jakobowitz, PhD
  • Mizanur Khondoker, PhD
  • Nicky Stanley, MSc
  • Kylee Trevillion, PhD
  • Louise Howard, MRCPsych
  • Cathy Zimmerman, PhD
Human Trafficking and Psychiatric Education: A Call to Action
(PDF 316 KB)
2016 Academic Psychiatry
  • John Coverdale
  • Eugene V. Beresin
  • Alan K. Louie
  • Richard Balon
  • Laura Weiss Roberts
Human Trafficking Heroes and Villains: Representing the Problem in Anti-Trafficking Awareness Campaigns
(PDF 209 KB)
2016 Social & Legal Studies
  • Erin O’Brien
Human trafficking in the commercial fishing industry: A multiple case study analysis 2020 Marine Policy
  • Joan P. Mileski
  • Cassia Bomer Galvao
  • Zaida Denise Forester
Human Trafficking of Children 2020 Pediatric Annals
  • Dena Nazer
  • Jordan Greenbaum
Human Trafficking, Immigration Regulation and Sub-federal Criminalization
(PDF 509 KB)
2016 New Criminal Law Review
  • Jennifer M. Chacon
Human Trafficking: How a Joint Task Force Between Health Care Providers and Law Enforcement can Assist with Identifying Victims and Prosecuting Traffickers
(PDF 17 MB)
2016 Health Matrix
  • Megan Helton
Human trafficking: The relationship between government efforts & survivor punishment 2020 Global Public Health
  • Rebecca Amantia
  • Veronica L. Irvin
  • Ellen Smit
  • Jessica R. Seifert
  • Jonathan Garcia
Identification and Treatment of Human Trafficking Victims in the Emergency Department: A Case Report
(PDF 143 KB)
2016 The Journal of Emergency Medicine
  • Patric Gibbons, MS2
  • Hanni Stoklosa, MD, MPH
Identifying best practices for “Safe Harbor” legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient
(PDF 451 KB)
2016 Child Abuse & Neglect
  • Elizabeth S. Barnert
  • Susan Abrams
  • Veronica F. Azzi
  • Gery Ryand
  • Robert Brook
  • Paul J. Chunga
Innocent Traffickers, Guilty Victims: The case for prosecuting so-called ‘bottom girls’ in the United States
(PDF 150 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Alexandra F. Levy
Investments in Human Trafficking Prosecutions are Indispensable
(PDF 133 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Victor Boutros
  • John Cotton Richmond
Legislative discrepancies: an analysis of Missouri’s current human trafficking laws and the need to improve its legal protection of victims 2020 International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare
  • Rachel Kappler
  • Arduizur Carli Richie-Zavaleta
Looking for a Hidden Population: Trafficking of Migrant Laborers in San Diego County 2019 San Diego State University
  • Sheldon X. Zhang, Ph.D
Medical-Legal Collaboration and Community Partnerships: Prioritizing Prevention of Human Trafficking in Federally Qualified Health Centers
(PDF 738 KB)
2020 Georgia State University Law Review
  • Kimberly S.G. Chang, MD, MPH
  • Hamida Yusufzai
  • Anna Marjavi
Mental Health Service Needs of Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth: Voices of Survivors and Stakeholders 2020 Violence and Victims
  • Rachel Robitz
  • Emilio C. Ulloa
  • Marissa Salazar
  • Monica D. Ulibarri
Money Laundering in the Commercial Sex Market in the United States
(PDF 1 MB)
2019 Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
  • Youngbee Dale
Motivational interviewing with individuals at risk of sex trafficking 2020 Journal of Social Work
  • Lara Gerassi
  • Karyn Esbensen
My Experience is Mine to Tell: Challenging the abolitionist victimhood framework
(PDF 726 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Claudia Cojocaru
Neoliberal Sexual Humanitarianism and Story-Telling: The case of Somaly Mam
(PDF 713 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Heidi Hoefinger
Not All Prosecutions are Created Equal: Less counting prosecutions, more making prosecutions count
(PDF 143 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Marika McAdam
Parents as Pimps: Survivor Accounts of Trafficking of Children in the United States
(PDF 766 KB)
2020 Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
  • Jody Raphael
Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale
(PDF 392 KB)
2016 Violence Against Women
  • Jaclyn D. Houston-Kolnik
  • Nathan R. Todd
  • Midge Wilson
Prioritising Prosecutions is the Wrong Approach
(PDF 134 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Kate D’Adamo
Rebooting Trafficking
(PDF 390 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Nicholas de Villiers
Regulating forced labour and combating human trafficking: the relevance of historical definitions in a contemporary perspective
(PDF 496 KB)
2015 Crime, Law and Social Change
  • Natalia Ollus
Risk Factors for Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States: A Literature Review
(PDF 860 KB)
2015 Journal of Forensic Nursing
  • Kristen R. Choi, RN, BSN
Safe Harbor Policies for Juvenile Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Myopic View of Improvements in Practice
(PDF 629 KB)
2015 Social Inclusion
  • Kimberly Mehlman-Orozco
Screening for human trafficking among homeless young adults 2018 Children and Youth Services Review
  • Makini Chisolm-Straker
  • Julia Einbond
  • Jeremy Sze
Services to domestic minor victims of sex trafficking: Opportunities for engagement and support
(PDF 393 KB)
2015 Children and Youth Services Review
  • Deborah A. Gibbs
  • Jennifer L. Hardison Walters
  • Alexandra Lutnick
  • Shari Miller
  • Marianne Kluckman
Services to LGBTQ runaway and homeless youth: Gaps and recommendations
(PDF 751 KB)
2016 Children and Youth Services Review
  • Elaine M. Maccio
  • Kristin M. Ferguson
Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services
(PDF 197 KB)
2015 Social Work
  • Julie Orme
  • Fariyal Ross-Sheriff
Sexual Violence and HIV Infection Associated With Adolescent vs Adult Entry Into the Sex Trade in Mexico
(PDF 87 KB)
2015 American Medical Association
  • Jay G. Silverman, PhD
  • Argentina Servin, MD, MPH
  • Shira M. Goldenberg, PhD
  • Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, MD
  • Julie Ritter, MPH
  • Anita Raj, PhD
  • Kimberly C. Brouwer, PhD
Shining Light on Global Supply Chains
(PDF 327 KB)
2015 Harvard International Law Journal
  • Galit Sarfaty
Short-term cessation of sex work and injection drug use: Evidence from a recurrent event survival analysis
(PDF 359 KB)
2015 Addictive Behaviors
  • Tommi L. Gaines
  • Lianne A. Urada
  • Gustavo Martinez
  • Shira M. Goldenberg
  • Gudelia Rangel
  • Elizabeth Reed
  • Thomas L. Patterson
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies
(PDF 132 KB)
2016 Journal of Public Health Policy
  • Farhan Navid Yousaf
  • Bandana Purkayastha
Supporting youth involved in domestic minor sex trafficking: Divergent perspectives on youth agency
(PDF 434 KB)
2016 Child Abuse & Neglect
  • Beth Sapiro
  • Laura Johnson
  • Judy L. Postmus
  • Cassandra Simmel
Supporting youth involved in domestic minor sex trafficking: Divergent perspectives on youth agency
(PDF 434 KB)
2016 Child Abuse & Neglect
  • Beth Sapiro
  • Laura Johnson
  • Judy L. Postmus
  • Cassandra Simmel
The Art of the Possible: Making films on sex work migration and human trafficking
(PDF 418 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Sine Plambech
The Challenges and Perils of Reframing Trafficking as ‘Modern-Day Slavery’
(PDF 98 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Janie A Chuang
The implicit theories of child sexual exploitation material users: An initial conceptualization
(PDF 367 KB)
2016 Aggression and Violent Behavior
  • Ross M. Bartels
  • Hannah L. Merdian
The Importance of Strategic, Victim-Centred Human Trafficking Prosecutions
(PDF 144 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Susan French
  • Cindy C. Liou
The Intersection of Child Trafficking and Health Care: Our Unique Role as Pediatric Clinicians 2020 Pediatric Clinics of North America Volume
  • Nicole M.Leopardi, MD
  • Aldina M. Hovde, MSW
  • Lauren V. Kullmann, BS
The Prominent Role of National Judges in Interpreting the International Definition of Human Trafficking
(PDF 216 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Luuk B Esser
  • Corinne E Dettmeijer-Vermeulen
The Public Health Approach to Human Trafficking Prevention
(PDF 299 KB)
2020 Georgia State University Law Review
  • Jordan Greenbaum, MD
The Racial Roots of Human Trafficking
(PDF 149 KB)
2015 UCLA Law Review
  • Cheryl Nelson Butler
The Sexual Exploitation of Girls in the United States: The Role of Female Pimps
(PDF 912 KB)
2015 Journal of Interpersonal Violence
  • Dominique Eve Roe-Sepowitz
  • James Gallagher
  • Markus Risinger
  • Kristine Hickle
The Trauma of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Youth: A Comparison of CSE Victims to Sexual Abuse Victims in a Clinical Sample
(PDF 364 KB)
2016 Journal of Interpersonal Violence
  • Jennifer Cole, PhD
  • Ginny Sprang, PhD
  • Robert Lee, MS
  • Judith Cohen, MD
Towards a Cohesive and Contextualised Response: When is it necessary to distinguish between forced labour, trafficking in persons and slavery?
(PDF 107 KB)
2015 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Marja Paavilainen
Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking
(PDF 440 KB)
2015 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Michele Ford
Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods
(PDF 245 KB)
2016 Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
  • Abby C. Cannon
  • Jennet Arcara
  • Laurie M. Graham
  • Rebecca J. Macy
Trafficking In Persons Report July 2015
(PDF 21 MB)
2015 U.S. Department of State
  • Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
U.S. State Laws Addressing Human Trafficking: Education of and Mandatory Reporting by Health Care Providers and Other Professionals
(PDF 2 MB)
2016 Journal of Human Trafficking
  • Holly G. Atkinson
  • Kevin J. Curnin
  • Nicole C. Hanson
Understanding Transnational Gangs and Criminal Networks: A Contribution to Community Resilience
(PDF 2 MB)
2015 Journal of Gang Research
  • Ami C. Carpenter
  • Stacey Cooper
Villains and Victims, but No Workers: Why a prosecution-focussed approach to human trafficking fails trafficked persons
(PDF 149 KB)
2016 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Inga Thiemann
Vulnerability Factors and Pathways Leading to Underage Entry into Sex Work in two Mexican-US Border Cities
(PDF 128 KB)
2015 Journal of Applied Research on Children
  • Argentina E. Servin
  • Kimberly C. Brouwer
  • Leah Gordon
  • Teresita Rocha-Jimenez
  • Hugo Staines
  • Ricardo B. Vera-Monroy
  • Steffanie A. Strathdee
  • Jay G. Silverman
When it Comes to Modern Slavery, do Definitions Matter?
(PDF 101 KB)
2015 Anti-Trafficking Review
  • Fiona David
Women Exiting Street-Based Sex Work: Correlations between Ethno-Racial Identity, Number of Children, and Violent Experiences
(PDF 1 MB)
2016 Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work
  • Jennifer Hankel
  • Susan Dewey
  • Nina Martinez
Youth Involvement in the Sex Trade
(PDF 2 MB)
2016 Center for Court Innovation
  • Rachel Swaner
  • Melissa Labriola
  • Michael Rempel
  • Allyson Walker
  • Joseph Spadafore